Immigrants to Canada

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Extracts From the Immigration Report of 1866

Sessional Papers 30 Victoria 1867 (3)

From whence 1865 1866 Increase Decrease
Cabin Steerage Cabin Steerage
England 1,229 8,067 1,247 5,988 -- 2,061
Ireland 190 4,492 153 2,077 -- 2,452
Scotland 141 2,460 164 2,058 -- 379
Total United Kigdom 1,560 15,019 1,564 10,123 -- 4,892
Germany -- 1,380 -- 3,330 1,950 -
Norway and Sweden -- 3,384 -- 13,506 13,122 -
Other Countries -- 12 -- 125 113 -
1,560 19,795 1,564 27,084 12,185 4,892
1,560 1,564
21,355 28,648

The steamers made average passages of 12 days from Liverpool, 11½ from Londonderry, 21 days from London, and 15½ from Glasgow; and the sailing ships averaged 33½ days from the United Kingdom and 50 days from Foreign Ports

Separating the Cabin from the Steerage Passengers, the following results appear:--

Number

of ships

Cabin

Passengers

Steerage

Passengers

Total
Liverpool and Londonderry mail Steamers 32 1,316 7,751 9,067
Glasgow Steamers (touching occasionally at Londonderry) 13 164 2,049 2,213
London Steamers 9 80 179 259
United Kingdom (sailing ships) 24 4 144 148
Foreign Ports (sailing ships) 75 - 16,961 16,961[sic]
153 1,564 27,084 28,648

Which tend to show that of the whole emigration from the United Kingdom, 11,539 came out by steamers, and but 148 by sailing vessels.

The number of sailing ships from Great Britain that came under the provisions of the "Imperial Passenger Act" was but two, the remaining 22, carrying 39 passengers, not having been subject to its regulations.

Distinguishing the Nationalities of the Emigrants of the two seasons the following contract occurs:--

1865 1866
English 5,070 3,380
Irish 6,836 3,422
Scotch 2,112 2,074
Germans and Prussians 2,096 4,013
Norwegians, Swedes and Danes 4,382 14,968
Belgians - 118
Other Countries 859 673
21,355 28,648

The Origins of those brought out from different countries by the various steamers and sailing vessels are thus given:--

English Irish Scotch Germans

and

Prussians

Norwegians,

Swedes and

Danes

Other

Countries

Total
Ocean Mail Steamers 3,027 2,603 148 683 1,357 612 8,430
London Steamers 144 1 3 - 105 6 259
Glasgow Steamers (occasionally touching at L'derry) 79 802 1,914 - - 55 2,850
Sailing Ships, England 123 - - - - - 123
" Ireland - 16 - - - - 16
" Scotland - - 9 - - - 9
" Germany - - - 3,330 - - 3,330
" Norway & Sweden - - - - 13,506 - 13,506
" Other Countries 7 - - - - 118 125
3,380 3,422 2,074 4,013 14,968 791 28,648

The first passenger ship of the season, the steamship Hibernian, arrived in port on the 1st of May, and the last passenger ship, the Nova Scotian, on the 14th November.

I am glad to be able to report so favorably of the healthy state of the immigration of 1866. Amongst the emigrants from the united Kingdom but eight deaths occurred at sea, while the mortality on board the ships from Foreign Ports bears a smaller per centage than ordinary, amongst the Norwegians there were 73 deaths on the passage, and nine in quarantine, together 82 or equal to 0.60 per cent, and amongst the Germans 83 deaths occurred at sea, and ten at Grosse Isle, being 93 or equal to 2.72 per cent.

The prevalence of cholera on the Western Continent of Europe in the spring of the year caused much alarm, and fears were entertained that this dread scourge then raging in some of the Danubian Principalities might be conveyed to us through our foreign emigration. A more elaborate system of medical discipline was at once inaugurated at Grosse Isle, fresh additions were made to the staff of employees and extreme vigilance was used in enforcing a rigorous quarantine on all ships sailing up the St. Lawrence to this Port. These measures (which involved a considerable increase of expenditure) had the effect of calming the public mind and providentially we escaped the visitation of any grave epidemic disease.


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© Marjorie P. Kohli, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1997-2007
Last updated: February 17, 2007 and maintained by Marj Kohli