Immigrants to Canada
UWInfo | Young Immigrants | Genealogy | Local History | 19th Century Immigration
Extracts From the Immigration Report of 1853
Taken from Emigration. Papers Relative to Emigration to The British Provinces in North America, British Parliamentary Papers
1854, XLVI, (1763 ).
- In 1853 some 3,029 persons sailed from English ports other than Liverpool to Canada. Of this number 4 deaths were reported.
From Liverpool some 6,651 persons sailed with 115 deaths reported. Liverpool's high death rate was attributed to the ship
Fingal. This vessel accounted for 34 of the deaths, 14 of them children.
- Of the 14,252 Irish there were 43 deaths at sea and of the 4,754 Scots 17 deaths occurred.
- Sadly, 4 vessels were lost, being the: Argyle from Newport, having only 3 passengers on board and a crew of 22. "She
foundered at sea on the 20th July, when 8 of the crew were drowned, and 6 afterwards died in the boats from starvation and
exposure; one of whom, a young man, was a passenger. The other two (females) reached Newfoundland, and were forwarded
to this port by a schooner."
- The Charles Clarke, from Hamburg, "having on board 113 passengers were all saved, and reached this port by a schooner on
the 10th October. She was wrecked at Trespasse Bay, Newfoundland, on the 27th July; 5 of the passengers were drowned in the
act of reaching the shore; the remainder succeeded in reaching St. John's, where they were assisted, and also provided with a
passage to this port."
- "The third vessel was the Douglas, from Leith, with 10 passengers. She took fire at sea on the 11th September, and next day
was run ashore at Cape Ray. The passengers were all saved, and reached this port by a schooner on the 10th October."
- "The fourth vessel, the Annie Jane, from Liverpool, was lost on the 28th September, on the island of Barra, where out of 334
steerage passengers, only 61 were saved. It is stated that, including crew and cabin passengers, 400 persons were on board of
this unfortunate ship, out of which number it has been ascertained that only 102 persons, through great personal exertions,
were enabled to save their lives.
This vessel sailed first from Liverpool on the 24th August, with 469 steerage passengers, but having been obliged to put back
leaky, about 130 of the passengers left her, and she sailed the second time on the 9th September with the above number. This
unfortunate ship was almost altogether loaded with railroad iron, and to the nature of her cargo may in a great measure be
attributed the melancholy loss of life."
- "Owing to the prevalence of westerly winds and stormy weather during the months of September and October, several
emigrant vessels bound for this port failed to reach their destination, and were obliged to bear up for ports in New Brunswick
and the United States. The ship Huron, from Limerick, with 250 passengers, put into Boston. The Jenny Johnston, from
Tralee, with 153 passengers, succeeded, after being blown twice out of the gulf, in reaching St. Andrew's. Captain Attridge
forwarded all such passengers as were destined for Canada to Montreal via Portland, United States. The Albion from Youghal,
with 16 passengers, having found that she could not reach this port, proceeded to St. John's, New Brunswick, and the captain
forwarded his passengers from thence to Montreal by the same route."
- "The Perseverance, from Dublin, with 141 passengers, is reported as having put back and reaching Cork short of provisions,
after being seventy-one days out."
- "From Scotland the number assisted was 351, 332 of whom were Highlanders from the Glengary estate in Inverness-shire.
They received a free passage as far as Montreal; they were a fine body of settlers. Their landlord, in addition to giving them a
free passage, remitted all their arrears of rent, which I am given to understand was very considerable, and allowed them to
realize there stock, and moreover assisted them in bedding, clothes, &c. for the voyage, and each also received ten pounds of
oatmeal on leaving the vessel in Quebec. The remaining 19 persons were from Colonsa, in Argyleshire."
- From Ireland were 1,600 aided of whom 1,404 were sent out by unions. "Of this number 54 were from the unions of
Carrickmacross and Tralee, and 142 were sent out by the landlords. Of those sent out by the unions, 1,464[sic], the great
majority were single females, and on a reference to the returns I find them classed as follows:
Male adults 109
- "Of the foreign emigrants, it appears one family of 12 persons by the Washington from Hamburg were sent out by the parish of
Lichtentunan, in Bavaria They were provided with a passage to this port, and proceeded to relations at Rochester. Also on
board the Charles Chaloner, from Liverpool, there were 18 persons sent out by the town of Leitzenburg, in Holstein; they
were forwarded via Liverpool, and landed here without means. They were assisted up the country."
- The Blanche, from Liverpool was convicted of a breach of the Passenger Act.
- "Two emigrants of the past season who apparently landed in this colony in good health, have become lunatics, and are now
confined in the Beauport Asylum. Their names are William Linahan, aged twenty-one years, and Mary Devine, aged twenty;
the former arrived by the ship Sultan from Cork on the 21st June, and was sent to the Marine and Emigrant Hospital on the 26th
September, and removed to the Lunatic Asylum on the 7th November. Mary Devine came out in the ship Tottenham from
Cork; arrived here on the 10th September, was sent to hospital on the 3d, and transferred to the asylum on the 10th December.
From a recent report of the medical officers of this institution, hopes are entertained of their speedy restoration, particularly in
the case of Mary Devine, who, being pregnant, offers after delivery every probability of mental health."
- "A large amount of the expenditure during the past season was caused by the foreign emigration, and principally among the
Norwegians. Of the whole Norwegian emigrants of the past season, numbering 5,061 souls, they proceeded direct to the
Western States, with the exception of about 200, who were induced to proceed to Hamilton, where they were guaranteed
employment on the railroad in the expectation that they might afterwards be induced to settle in the province. A number were
also employed on the Richmond railroad, but left as soon as they had realized sufficient money to carry them west, and I am
given to understand that but few of those who went to Western Canada will be likely to remain there. These people (whose
general habits to severe industrial employment, added to their inurement to a climate similar to that of Eastern Canada, would
render their settlement in the province highly desirable) labour under many disadvantages which attend an entire ignorance of
our language, and what indeed is much to be regretted is, that as yet there are so few Norwegians settled in Canada, that with
even every incitement to settlement, they find it almost impossible to meet with persons sufficiently conversant with their
language to guide or direct them in their views and conditions. Under such circumstances it is very natural that they should be
desirous of availing themselves of very extensive settlement, already opened and inhabited, in the state of Wisconcin[sic] by
their own countrymen, and where all these people proceeded but as many of them had numerous helpless families, and from
their ignorance of the language spoken, incapable of obtaining suitable employments, they were provided with a fare passage
- "The Germans have generally succeeded better; a large number of them went to Hamilton to the German settlements, in the
district of Waterloo; and it is estimated that fully one half of the German emigration of the past season have become
permanent settlers, many of whom were possessed of a considerable amount of capital, and who will, doubtless, prove a
valuable addition to the population of that section."
- "Two German children became chargeable in this department during the past season; they were deserted by a woman,
supposed to be their mother, who came passenger in the ship Mary Michison, from Hamburg, in the early part of July. Having
placed them in lodgings, and every exertion being made to discover their relations or friends, I, on the close of the navigation,
made application and obtained admission for them as orphans into the Protestant Female Orphan Asylum in this city; their
names are Bothe, and they are of the age of 5 and 7 years respectively."
- Of the Irish emigrations, "A large proportion of the women and children were proceeding to join their relations in Western
Canada, and the several States in the Union; several poor families who came this route were proceeding to their relations in
Missouri, Kentucky, Tenessee[sic], and New Orleans. They chose this route as their means did not permit their taking shipping
to New York or New Orleans; and, having landed here destitute, it was found necessary to forward them, which was generally
effected within the range of steamboat travel, either to Cleveland on Lake Erie, or Chicago on Lake Michigan."
- "From a return of the emigrants at the Port of New York it appears that the number at the close of the year was 284,945, being
a decrease on that of 1852 of 14,559, over 9,000 of which was on that from the United Kingdom, which number during the
past season was 147,928 against 156,983 in 1852; but the greatest proportionate decrease is on the emigration from Norway,
which being in 1852, 1,889, fell during the past year to 377. This may in some measure account for the large increase in
number received from that country by this route during the past year.
I have not been able to ascertain the extent of mortality among the emigration of the past season arriving at New York, as I
cannot find that any report of this is ever made public. I observe, from a statement published in a New York paper of the
deaths on board 28 emigrant vessels arrived in that port during the month of November, that out of 13,762 passengers, the
frightful number of 1,141 is stated to have died on the passage from cholera, equal to 8 per cent, thereby showing a mortality
much more severe than that experienced in the emigration to this port during the fatal season of 1847."
- "The establishment of the Canada line of steamers has, it may be observed, already been beneficially felt here, by the great
increase of cabin passengers from Liverpool during the past season. This field of enterprise, so important to the general
interests of the colony, will it is hoped be extended, and amongst other advantages prove the means of diverting and
accelerating the tide of trade and travel to its proper and destined course (the St. Lawrence), to obtaining which the energies
and resources of our great rival and neighbour have been employed, and not without success; and it is not advancing too much
when I observe, that for the emigrant no country offers better guarantees for the successful pursuit of competency and
happiness than this."
- "The opening of the Great Western Railway from Hamilton to Detroit, which is to take place during the ensuing month, will
doubtless have a very beneficial effect on the travel by this route, the more particularly as it will render the St. Lawrence the
most direct and expeditious medium for all emigrants desirous of proceeding to the Western States. The transhipment and
detention from Queenstown to Buffalo round the Falls of Niagara will be saved thereby, and all the dangerous navigation of
Lake Erie avoided, and, moreover, what is of the highest importance, 100 miles of distance saved. The distance from Quebec
to Chicago by this route will be 1,048 miles, one half of which will be performed in comfortable steamers, and the remainder
by railroad. Actual time of travel about 70 hours."
- Arrivals from 1st to the 31st May: "On board the Ava from Southampton, there were 78 persons who were aided in their
emigration, forty-one souls, equal to thirty-three adults, also received landing money, amounting to 30£ sterling; the remainder
were respectable farmers proceeding to Upper Canada, and a few to the Western States.
Of the foreign emigrants 277 were Germans and 250 Norwegians; the latter all proceeded direct to Chicago; twenty-six of the
Germans were employed on the Richmond railroad about fifteen miles from Quebec, and fourteen proceeded to friends in the
Waterloo districts (they possessed capital), and 234 went to their friends in the Western States."
- Arrivals from 1st to the 11th of June: "About one half are foreigners, principally Norwegians; they appear to be a fine healthy
body of emigrants.
About 100 were induced to proceed to Hamilton for employment, but expressed their intention of afterwards settling in the
Huron Track. They were provided with recommendations from Mr. Christie, M.P.P., to influential parties in that section of the
province, and if they can be induced to remain, they will doubtless become valuable settlers, and thereby form a nucleus, and
be the means of attracting thereto further parties of their countrymen.
The remainder, about 700, went to Milwaukie[sic]; the Germans 200 in number, proceeded to Hamilton and the Western
States; English and Scotch have chiefly proceeded to Upper Canada. A number of mechanics from Glasgow are employed in
Of the emigrants from Ireland, about one half were going to the United States. A good many are employed on the Quebec and
A few families have been assisted, chiefly females and children, proceeding to join their friends."
- Arrivals from 12th to the 18th June: "The foreign emigrants, 400 in number, are all Norwegians, and have proceeded to the
Wester States. 56 young women in the Crescent City, sent out by the Ballymahon Union, were smart, tidy-looking girls; they
received 20s. sterling each on landing here, and they all proceeded direct to Toronto, where their services are much required,
and where they will all do well.
The emigrants per Jenny Johnston, from Tralee, were all very poor, a large proportion of them were women and children,
emigrating to join their friends and relations; a considerable number required assistance from this department, to enable them
to proceed to their destination.
The English and Scotch emigrants were respectable in appearance, and many of them in comfortable circumstances. They went
direct to Western Canada, save a small number to the Western States. By the Ship Arran, from Liverpool, there was a party of
A few are employed here, and the remainder proceeded to Hamilton and the Western States."
- Arrivals 21st June to 2d July: "5383 emigrants have landed here since the 21st June; they have arrived in good health; nearly
two-thirds are native Irish, a large portion of whom were proceeding to friends and relations in the United States. 60 full
passengers by the Amazon, from Cork, had engaged their passage in that city direct for Boston and New York, having been
able to come this route (owing to the opening of the railway communication between Montreal and these cities), for less
money than proceeding direct by sea.
The increased tax on emigrants arriving at New York will, no doubt, tend materially to encourage this branch of our trade;
emigrants are now conveyed from this city to Boston in from 24 to 30 hours, for 18s. sterling, and to New York for 14s.
sterling each adult.
There have been some complaints by the passengers by the Blanche, from Liverpool, as to irregularity in the issue of
provisions, and deficiency in quantity; the case was heard before the sitting magistrates and judgement was given in favour of
the passengers, and the matter was finally settled by the captain, to their satisfaction, by the latter paying the costs of suit, and
allowing 5s. to each of his passengers, the value of provisions short issued. There were also complaints made by the
passengers by the Huron, Quebec Packet, and Susan, all from Limerick, for subsistence money, and for inferior quality of oatmeal.
These vessels were chartered by Mr. Gleeson, passage broker, in Limerick, and it appears that the oatmeal put on board for the
use of the passengers was, on the top of the bags, of fair quality, but on removing the small quantity of good meal, the rest of
the bag was found to be very inferior and unfit for use without being sifted; it was not in fact "oatmeal," but a mixture of
barley and seeds. The provisions having been inspected by the proper officer at Limerick, and the captain having offered to
compensate the passengers, I did not deem it necessary to proceed further against them. The master of the Huron paid his
passengers from 7s. 6d. to 15s. each adult, being the amount of subsistence money due as specified by the tickets. The Susan at
from 5s. to 7s. 6d. each part of which was claimed for subsistence money; and the master of the Quebec Packet allowed his
passengers 2s. 6d. each, as compensation for the bad quality of the oatmeal. A special report of these vessels has been
forwarded to the Government Emigration Officer at Limerick, with the view to cause inquiry into the facts.
Labourers and mechanics, such as masons, bricklayers, and carpenters, are much inquired for. 5,000 men are now wanted on
the Toronto and Sarina Railroads, wages one dollar per day. Agents are here from Chicago and Cincinnati wishing to engage
several thousand men, wages 6s. 3d. per day; and as an inducement, they offer a passage to Chicago, to be repaid out of their
first wages. Daily applications are received from almost every section of the province for agricultural labourers and female
servants which I find it impossible to supply."
- Arrivals from the 2d to the 16th July: "2748 emigrants landed at this port between the 2d and 16th instant, more than half of
whom were foreigners, chiefly Norwegians; all of whom proceeded direct to the Western States. A few of the Germans
proceeded to Hamilton, to the German settlements in that section of the province.
On board the Victoria, from Dublin, there were 138 sent out from the Naas Union. They received 1£ each adult, on landing
here A few remained about the city, but the greater part proceeded up the country; some to friends and relations in the Untied
- Arrivals from 16th to the 31st July: The emigrants from Glasgow, 487, were all respectable intelligent settlers, and with the
exception of about 50, proceeded direct to Toronto and Hamilton.
The Norwegians, 616, all went direct to Chicago and Milwaukie[sic]. A few of the Germans proceeded to Hamilton, the
remainder to Buffalo and Chicago.
Those from England were chiefly from Liverpool. On board the Ann Kenny and Salem there were 69 English, 7 Scotch, 417
Irish, and 238 foreigners. A few of the Irish were employed about the city the remainder proceeded to Upper Canada and to the
United States. The foreigners nearly all went to Chicago.
A number were very poor and were chiefly women and children proceeding to join friends in Wester Canada and the United States.
They were forwarded on their route at the expense of this department. The Irish emigrants, from Belfast and Londonderry,
were respectable in appearance, and nearly all went to Upper Canada."
- Arrivals from 31st July to 20th August: "5,528 emigrants have landed at this port during the period embraced in this return.
They landed in good health, with the exception of a few by the Lady Hobart, from Liverpool, who were suffering from
smallpox. Five deaths occurred on the passage, and 67 were detained in quarantine. A young woman, named Kavanagh, was
reported by the medical superintendent as insane. Captain Clarke has decided to take her home to her friends, in preference to
giving the necessary bonds required by law.
The emigrants from Irish ports, 2,061 souls, were all of the labouring class, and show a large preponderance in the number of
females and children.
A large number of the females and children had emigrated to join friends, the greater part of whom required assistance.
Of 1,038 emigrants from the port of Liverpool - 902 were Irish; 74 English; 3 Scotch and 59 Germans. Of this number, 147
adults and 112 children were forwarded to their friends.
The foreign emigrants number 744, 576 of whom were Norwegians; they all proceeded to the Western States. 168 were
Germans, 98 of whom went to Strasbourg and Waterloo settlements; and the remainder (70) went to friends in the Western States.
A large number of Norwegians were poor, and 186 were assisted from this to reach Milwaukie[sic].
The emigrants from Scotland were generally respectable farmers and mechanics, and all proceeded to Upper Canada, chiefly to
Toronto and Hamilton. On board the Odessa, from Dublin, there were 100 girls from the Mullingar Union, who received 20s.
sterling, equal to 24s./4d. currency, through this office, on landing.
Their appearance was much in their favour. I could only induce 44 of them to proceed to Toronto, all of whom, I have since
heard, were hired the day after they arrived; and that ten times that number would be absorbed without difficulty."
- Arrivals from 21st to the 31st of August: "104 persons from the wreck of the Charles Clarke, from Hamburg, arrived in the
brig Escape, from St. John's, Newfoundland. A subscription was made in St. John's for their relief, amounting to 122£ 15s.
3d.; 67£ 10s. was distributed in cash among them, and 55£ 5s. 3d. expended in clothing, &c.
The parties on arrival here, were forwarded to Hamilton, free; 49½ adults proceeded to friends in the Waterloo settlements,
and the remainder, equal to 35½ adults, proceeded to Buffalo on their route to the west."
- Arrivals from 31st August to the 17th September: "3,698 emigrants landed at this port, from the 3rd to the 17th instant, in
good health, but 9 persons out of this number were sent to hospital at the quarantine station; and from the last return, dated 17th
instant, but 3 persons were remaining in hospital, 2 of whom have since been discharged. Of the whole number over two-thirds
are Irish, a large proportion of whom are females and children, and the great majority are emigrating to join friends and
relations. The proportion of females and children to male adults is over 2 to 1.
The adult females, have been somewhat increased by a party of 156 girls from the Mount-Bellew and Parsonstown Union.
These were paid 1£ sterling on landing here, and, with the exception of about 20 they were directed to Toronto and Hamilton,
in which quarter their services are much wanted, and were they would all find immediate employment.
The chief agent for Canada West reports that of a party of 44 girls, forwarded to him during the month of August, the whole
were engaged the day after their arrival; and that if ten times their number were landed in the morning, they could be similarly
disposed of before sundown. He also reports a great scarcity of labourers, and that carpenters, masons, and bricklayers are
On board the Sillery, from Skye, there were 332 persons sent out from the Glengary estate. They were a fine healthy body of
emigrants. They received a free passage as far as Montreal, and were allowed each 10 lbs. oatmeal on leaving the ship; and,
owing to the increasing demand for labourers of all descriptions throughout the province they cannot fail to do well.
The Norwegian emigrants, per Hector, all proceeded to Wisconsin. A number of families were very poor, and unable to
proceed without assistance; and as they had large helpless families depending on them, and relations in Wisconsin, they were
provided with a free passage to Chicago at 32s. 6d. each adult.
The whole number of persons assisted from the several vessels in this return, were 387 adults, 332 children and 51 infants,
equal to 553 adults; these were all females and children, with the exception of a few men with large families."
- Arrivals from 17th September to 1st October: "The emigrants included in this return have all landed in good health. The
greater portion of them have come out to join their relations, who in many instances have sent them the necessary means for
doing so; but few of the men could be induced to remain here for employment, although much wanted, and wages one dollar
315 papers from the New Ross Union came out in the Glenlyon. They received 10s. Sterling each from the captain.
About 100 proceeded to join relations in the States.
On board the Jessy from Limerick, there were a large number of families, women and children, emigrating to join their
relations in West Canada and the Western States; and who, from being quite destitute of means to proceed, were forwarded at
the expense of the emigrant funds."
- Arrivals from 1st October to the 6th November: "The emigrants arrived during the month of October have landed in good
health, with the exception of those on board the Fingal from Liverpool, among whom thrity-four deaths occurred previous to arrival.
The greater part of the passengers by this vessel were transferred from the Joseph Howe, which vessel had sailed from
Liverpool on the 12th August, but having put into Cork in distress, she was condemned, her passengers landed and sent back to
Liverpool, from whence they sailed a second time on the 5th September, in the Fingal; but, owing to this detention, the stores
of many of the poor families were expended, and, being thereby without the means for necessarily renewing their stock, they
became altogether dependent upon the ship's allowance. To this cause, added to a long and stormy voyage, may in a great
measure be attributed the sickness and mortality; as, immediately on being landed at Grosse Isle, where they were detained a
few days to wash their clothes, they were allowed a wholesome nourishing diet, and during these few days of detention no
further cases of disease appeared among them. [She arrived in Quebec on October 22 after some 47 days at sea.]
The great majority of these passengers were Irish families coming out to friends. One poor woman, with four children, was
going to her husband in New Orleans. Several other families were going to relations in Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri.
Of 30 families fond necessary to be assisted, there were but 12 maile adults over 14 years, with 66 women and 70 children.
A number of the steerage passengers by the Sarah Sands and all those by the Jane Glassin, from Liverpool, had originally
been on board the ill-fated Annie Jane but left that vessel on her having put back to Liverpool.
They are mechanics and navvies coming out under engagements to Messrs. Jackson and Co. From 40 to 50 persons of the
same class were on board the Fingal.
The ships arrived during the past month have all had long and stormy passages.
The Nordlysett, from Christianna, arrived on the 9th instant; 86 days passage; all well.
The following vessels, with emigrants, sailed in the early part of September for this part; viz:
1st Jenny Johnston, Tralee, with 158 passengers, put into St. Andrew's, N.B., and landed her passengers;
2 Huron, from Limerick, with 271 passengers, put into Boston on the 7th instant;
3rd Perseverance, from Dublin, with 141 passengers;
4th Lavinia from Waterford, with 47 passengers.
Labour of all descriptions continues in great demand throughout the province, and all the emigrants landed are fully and
- "Should the present unsettled state of Europe continue, and result, as it is much to be feared, in a general war, [Crimean War]
this continent will doubtless receive a large accession of the better classes of emigrants, more particularly from the continent;
and, now that Canada has become better known, and that correct conception of its advantages and capabilities are also more
extensively diffused, it cannot but greatly benefit by the present unsettled aspect of affairs in Europe."
- "As I have before stated in my letters to you, we shall no doubt get many more settlers of this class during the ensuing winter
and spring. In fact, every arrival of the steamers from Lewiston and Rochester brings more or less. The steamers to these ports
continue their trips, whenever the weather will permit, throughout the year." Mr. Hawke goes on to report that the Grand
Trunk railway line will "commence extensively" in April of 1854.
- "Where deficiencies in the supply of provisions have occurred either from accident or misapprehension, the deficiency has
been made good on my representation. In one case (that of the packet ship Middleton,) the passengers, 291 in all, where short
of some articles during the latter part of the voyage, owing to sea-damage."
- "A few Norwegians landed in June last at Shediac, with the view, it was understood, of obtaining information respecting the
Gulf coast of this province, to be communicated to their countrymen in Norway. These, and a very few passengers landed at
Miramichi, constitute all the immigration in that part of the province during the past year. At St. Andrew's, 417 passengers
were landed during the year, chiefly labourers for the St. Andrew's and Quebec Railway, the rest bound to Canada but driven
in there by stress of weather, being too late in the season for Quebec. The latter were forwarded to Montreal via Portland; and
with respect to these, Captain Jones, the assistant emigration officer at St. Andrew's, has made a special report, which is
I have great gratification in being able to report, that the past year has been marked by greater prosperity among all the
industrial classes and in every branch of business, than has ever before been enjoyed since New Brunswick became a colony.
The prices of the staple exports of the country, timber and deals, have advanced to rates which are highly remunerative. The
number of saw-mills driven either by steam or water power is constantly on the increase. Ship building has also been
prosecuted with great activity, and, to an extent heretofore unparalleled. The vessels built are of much larger size than
formerly, and, owing to the high character New Brunswick ships have obtained abroad for speed and durability, their price has
become greatly enhanced. The harvest of 1853 was good, except a short crop of hay, and some damage to potatoes from the
old disease. The actual commencement of railway construction on an extensive scale, has opened up new and profitable
sources of employment. Altogether business is in a healthy state, and the province is rapidly advancing in every respect.
Besides the immigration from Europe, very considerable numbers of persons have entered the province from the neighbouring
colonies of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, and from elsewhere, attracted by the demand for labour, and high rates of
wages; still the supply of labour has fallen far short of the demand. The farmers have perhaps suffered more than any other
class, from an inadequate supply of agricultural labourers and female domestics. In the towns there has also been great scarcity
of female servants, and a supply of these is now very much needed. Boys from twelve to eighteen years of age are greatly in
demand throughout the province, by tradesmen, farmers, and mechanics.
During the coming season almost any number of unskilled labourers may be certain of finding steady employment at three
shillings and sixpence to four shillings sterling per day. Masons, joiners, house and ship-carpenters, bricklayers, and
millwrights will also find ready employment at five shillings to eight shillings sterling per day, the highest rates being given to
ship-carpenters and millwrights.
Great facilities for reaching New Brunswick are now presented by the semi-monthly line of large class packet ships at present
plying between Liverpool and this port, to which it was proposed to add during the coming season, two powerful iron screw
steam ships, of 1,700 tons burthen each, now building, if the owners are assured of certain aid from the province.
The opening of the railway from Portland to Montreal, has created a new line of traffic for emigrants from Europe bound to
Canada through this port of St. John. The voyage from the United Kingdom here may be stated at ten days less than to Quebec,
besides avoiding all the dangers of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence. From hence to Montreal via Portland, the time at present
is thirty-five hours only, which it is proposed to reduce by placing two more large and powerful steamers on the route to
Portland, so that one may leave here every day for that place, and thus prevent the least delay. This mode of reaching Canada
will also be advantageous in the spring, as passengers arriving here in March or April may be permanently located there, long
before ships can possibly reach Quebec by the St. Lawrence; and they may also join their friends in that province quite
comfortably, late in the season, long after the navigation of the St. Lawrence has closed. From the arrangements now in
progress, there is every reason to believe, that next season passengers from the United Kingdom for Montreal will reach that
place, via St. John much more speedily than by Quebec, at no greater expense, if not more cheaply." (Mr. M.H. Perley,
Emigration Officer for New Brunswick)
- "I have the honour to transmit to you a return relating to emigration for the year 1853, as required by Lord Stanley's Circular
Despatch of the 22d of March, 1845. Return of Emigrants, Prince Edward Island, January 1, 1854."
- Return of the Number of Persons who appear to have received Assistance to Emigrate; also showing the Number who received
Landing Money, through whom, and by whom paid, during the Year 1853.
with a Free
||Paid by Agents,
&c. In Sterling|
- The following railways were under construction:
- The Quebec and Richmond - 100 miles
- The Montreal and Portland - 31 miles
- The Prescott and Bytown - 54 miles
- The Toronto and Simcoe - 66 miles
- The Great Wester, from Hamilton to Windsor - 180 miles
- Labourers were required for railway building and the lumber trade. Some 25,000 to 30,000 were required in the lamber trade
earning between 2 and 3£ per month, with board. Skilled lumbermen earned between 3£ 10s. and 4£ per month.
- Route from Montreal to Bytown, by steamer daily, 129 miles; Bytown to Aylmer, by land, 9 miles; Aylmer to Sand Point, by
steamer, 45 miles; Sand Point to Castleford, by steamer, 8 miles; Castleford to Portage-du-Fort, 9 miles; Portage-du-Fort to
Pembroke, by land and water, 33 miles.
Quebec to Montreal, 180 miles by steamer, every day at five o'clock - 14 hours - by Royal Mail Packets 2s. Steerage, 2s 6d. Cabin
- by Tait's Line, 1s. 6d Steerage, 1s 10½d Cabin.
Montreal to Toronto, Hamilton, Buffalo and other ports on Lakes Erie and Michigan - Daily by the Royal Mail Line at 9 o'clock
a.m. - Passengers by this line tranship at Prescott to the Lake steamers. - from Montreal to:
|Niagara and Lewiston
|Buffalo by railroad
Daily by the American Line, at 1 o'clock p.m. - Passengers by this line tranship at Ogdensburg to the Lake steamers for Oswego
and Buffalo, and at Cape Vincent to the steamer for Toronto and Hamilton. - From Montreal to:
The passengers for both lines embark at the Canal Basin, Montreal, and arrive at Hamilton and Buffalo in 48 hours. from
Passage from Quebec to Hamilton - 17s. 6d
Passage from Quebec to Buffalo - 25s.
- To Buffalo to ports on Lake Erie, Michigan, &c., every evening at nine o'clock, b the Michigan Central Railroad Line:
|Buffalo to Cleveland, on Lake Erie, by steamer
|Buffalo to Sandusky, do
|Buffalo to Detroit, direct, do.
|Buffalo to Chicago, by railroad
|Buffalo to Chicago, by steamer, via Lake Huron and Michigan
Passengers from Quebec to Chicago, 32s. sterling, or 8 dol.
Passengers from Cincinnati or St. Louis land at Sandusky and proceed by railroad.
Steamers leave Kingston daily for the Bay of Quinte and the River Trent, calling at Picton, Adolphustown, Belleville, and other
landing places in the Bay.
From Toronto steamers leave daily for Port Dalhousie, the entrance of the Welland Canal, and for Hamilton, calling at Port
Credit, 15 miles ; Oakville, 25 miles; Wellington Square, 37 miles; and Hamilton, 43 miles.
Steamers leave Toronto daily for Niagara, Queenston, and Lewiston; passage 3s. 9d. At Lewiston the rail cars leave twice a day
for Buffalo; fare 5s.
Freight steamers carry passengers from Montreal to Kingston for 5s. each adult. To Toronto and Hamilton, 10s. ey., or 8s. stg.
- Ottawa River and Rideau Canal
From Montreal to Bytown and places on the Rideau Canal
by steam daily, through to Bytown in 12 hours
Leaves Montreal every morning at 8 o'clock
|From Montreal to Carillon
|" to Grenville
|" to L'Orignal
|" to Bytown
|" to Kemptville - Rideau Canal
|" to Merrickville "
|" to Smith's Falls "
Passengers proceeding to Perth, Lanark, or any of the adjoining settlements should land at Oliver's Ferry, 7 miles from Perth.
- Route to the United States
Emigrants proceeding to any of the following States of the American Union, viz. - Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, Vermont, New York, and Pennsylvania.
By the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad Company - Mr. W.A. Merry, Secretary.
Office on the Wharf, opposite the Steamboat Landing, Montreal.
To Boston - 16s. sterling; 20s. currency
To New York - 12 s. sterling; 15s. currency
- Montreal and New York Railroad Company - Mr. J. Farrow, Secretary.
Office at the Railroad Terminus, St. Antoine Suburbs: and Mr. Holt, Agent - Office, Great St. James Street.
To Boston - 16s. sterling; 20s. currency
To New York - 12s. sterling; 15s. currency
Trains of the above company leave Montreal daily for New York and Boston, through in 14 hours. 100 lbs. of baggage allowed
each passenger free; all over that quantity will be charged extra.
- New Brunswick
The best and most expeditious route is by the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, from Montreal to Portland, thence by
steamer which leaves for St. John's New Brunswick, every Monday and Wednesday evening at 8 o'clock.
|From Quebec to Montreal, by steamer
|From Montreal to Portland, by railroad
|From Portland to St. John's, by steamer
- Throughout these passages children under twelve years of age are charged half-price, and those under three years are free.
The gold sovereign is at present worth 24s. 4d. ey.; the English shilling, 1s. 3d.; and the English crown-piece 6s. 1d.
- Emigrants should exercise caution when paying their passage and, when in any doubt, apply at once to this Office, where they
will receive every advice and protection.
Emigrants only proceeding to Montreal will find it better not to take tickets, but pay their passage to the captain of the steamer
they proceed by, as it will save trouble and prevent mistakes.
Emigrants on arriving at Buffalo, if proceeding further, will, on application to Mr. J. Movius, agent of the Michigan Central
Railroad Company, receive correct advice and direction as to route.
UWInfo | Young Immigrants | Genealogy | Local History | 19th Century Immigration
© Marjorie P. Kohli, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1997-2007
Last updated: February 17, 2007 and maintained by Marj Kohli