UWInfo | Young Immigrants | Genealogy | Local History | 19th Century Immigration
Taken from Emigration. Papers Relative to Emigration to The British Provinces in North America, presented to the Houses of Parliament, by Command of Her Majesty, February, 1847.
In consequence of the distress which unhappily prevails in Ireland and parts of Scotland, a very large emigration may be expected at the earliest moment when the season will admit of it. Her Majesty's Government, therefore, have deemed it incumbent upon them to deliberate on the measures best calculated to prevent either suffering amongst the emigrants, or any undue pressure upon the provincial resources.
In the emigration which takes place annually from this country to North America, including the United States, and which amounted last year to 90,341 persons, and has this year, during the first three quarters, amounted to 110,196, [The numbers were: 1845–31,803 to North America; 58,538 to United States; First three quarters of 1846–42,404 to North America; 67,792 to the United States.] it would appear that a large proportion of the people consists of persons proceeding to join their friends, who in many cases have remitted the means of transit to those by whom they are followed. In these instances it may be expected that no difficulty will arise. The newly-arrived emigrants will disperse themselves throughout the various localities where their friends are already established, and where, from the manner in which they are sent for, it may be presumed that they will find the means of subsistence.
Another large proportion of each year's emigration consists of detached families, or small parties of persons having no particular destination, who spread themselves over the country in quest of employment, and many of whom adopt no permanent residence until after they have had sufficient time to save, out of the earnings of their labour, the means of purchasing for themselves a moderate extent of land. This also may be regarded, so far as it goes, as a wholesome course of proceeding. It enables the emigrant, when he is able to acquire land, to maintain himself till it can be rendered productive, and it affords him time to become acquainted with the nature and peculiarities of the country before undertaking any cultivation on his own account. In this point of view, the feeling which prompts large numbers of emigrants to travel about the country in persuit of wages and only at a com-(faded...) extremely well suited to the peculiar nature of the country to which they have proceeded.
There is, however, another description of emigrants, for whom also it is very desirable to ensure suitable facilities, but for whom at present no provision is made. By the accounts which reach Her Majesty's Government, it would appear that large parties of people, assisted by their landlords or by persons interested in their condition, would gladly emigrate in company form the same neigbourhood, if they could have a reasonable prospect of being settled together after their arrival; and there seems reason to suppose, that could measures be devised for securing this object, the clergyman would in many instances be found willing to accompany his flock. Proprietors also would feel much more confidence and satisfaction in contributing to a plan which would relieve their tenants from the necessity of separation after reaching the province. Without wishing, therefore, to interfere with the natural flow of ordinary emigration, which disperses itself over the province, without occasioning an overwhelming pressure in any one place, Her Majesty's Government have thought that they might confer much benefit on some portion of the persons who are desirous to emigrate, as well as upon the districts where they are to be settled, if they could devise the means of offering to parties proceeding from the same village or parish in this country, especially if accompanied by their clergyman or priest, the prospect of finding ready for them an opportunity of establishing themselves in a body.
Such being the general views which are entertained on the subject, I proceed to inform you in what manner it is proposed to carry them into effect; in doing so, I must, however, remark that it is not in my power to convey to you more than very general instructions upon the subject, leaving it to your judgment when on the spot, to supply the necessary details.
It will then in the first place be requisite that the situations in which villages are to be formed should be carefully selected. In making this selection, it should be particularly considered what prospect there might be, that the locality would afford immediate employment for the people at wages, since if the immediate difficulties of a first settlement can be surmounted, there is little reason to fear the ultimate success of the emigrants in a country where there is so large an extent of fertile land available for the supply of their wants. In laying out the villages, each should consist of a sufficient number of log-houses constructed at a moderate cost, to accommodate at least 300 souls, and to every house should be allotted a small piece of land as a garden, sufficient to occupy the tenant's spare time, but insufficient solely to provide for his subsistence, or make it unnecessary that he should also work for wages.
In every village there should be a cottage of a somewhat better description for the accommodation of a clergyman or priest, and contiguous to it there should be a plain and inexpensive wooden building to serve both as a school and a church. It is, however, absolutely necessary in order to limit the expense to be incurred, that these buildings should be of the very cheapest and simplest kind, trusting that hereafter the settlers will be able to provide better accommodation. At the rate of five persons to a family, 60 log-houses would suffice for the reception of 300 people, but the size of the villages must of course vary and depend on local circumstances of which the officers presently to be named, should judge.
The most important question is, as to the mode in which the cost of preparing these villages for the reception of emigrants, should be defrayed. It is not intended that this should be undertaken immediately by the Government, since if it were so, a very large permanent sacrifice of public money, which I do not consider to be indispensable, must be anticipated. Experience sufficiently proves that it would be most unwise for the Government to undertake the first cost of forming settlements of this description, under the expectation that the money so laid out, would ultimately be repaid by the emigrants. No such attempt, though more than one has been made, has ever been successful, nor is this by any means surprising, considering how much patient and persevering industry is indispensable for the success of a settler (faded...) energy of an emigrant should be damped, and his exertions discouraged by the thought that for some years, the result of all his toils must be not to improve his own condition, but to pay off a part of an apparently hopeless debt to the Government, so that practically, such debts never are paid.
Hence it is most important that the settler should never be induced to commence life in a new country in debt and that if the preparation of such villages as I have described, for the reception of emigrants, is to be attempted by the advance of public money, in the expectation that it will be ultimately repaid, that advance ought to be made, not to the emigrants themselves, but to some other party. Nor does it appear impossible that such an arrangement might be made. Considering how greatly the value of land in North America is enhanced by settlement, there is reason to believe that an arrangement might be made with the proprietors of large estates of wild land, by which, in consideration of an advance from the Government of a part of the money required, they should take upon themselves the task of preparing villages for the reception of emigrants. Proprietors making such agreements would of course look to obtaining from the emigrants the means of ultimately repaying the advances received from the public, and with the arrangements made between the parties for that purpose, the Government would have no right to interfere; but, without doing so, it would be proper to endeavour by advice to lead them to adopt such arrangements as would be most likely to promote the success of the measure. ................
Return of the Number of Emigrants embarked, with the Number of Deaths and Births during the Voyage and in Quarantine, the total number landed in the Colony, distinguishing Males from Females and Adults from Children, with the Number of Vessels from each Country, and the average Length of Passage, during the Season of 1846.
|Country||No. of Vessels||Average Length of Passage||No. of Cabin Passengers||Number of Persons Embarked||Number of Deaths on the Voyage, and in Quarantine||Number of Births||Number Landed in the Colony||Total|
|Adults||Children 1 to 14 Years||Children under 1 Year||Adults||Children 1 to 14 Years||Infants||Adults||Children 1 to 14 Years||Children under 1 Year|
|Number of Deaths on the Voyage......... 204
Ditto Ditto in Quarantine ........................68
|Number Steerage ...................................30,973
Children under 1 Year .............................1,180
Cabin Passengers .........................................600
In 1846 there were 32,153 persons who immigrated to the Canadas of which 9,163 came from England, 21,049 were from Ireland, 1,645 were from Scotland and 896 came from Germany. Of the total number 600 were cabin passengers.
From German ports: Antwerp, 11 persons; from Bremen, 117 persons; from Hamburgh[sic], 747 persons.
1,989 persons made their way to the United States from Upper Canada while 4,959 went from Montreal via Lake Champlain
Week ending 16th May, 1846: "2,600 emigrants arrived at this port from the opening of the navigation to this date, and have all landed in good health. ...Their destination is principally the western section of the province, where a large number of them have friends. A good many of those from the ports of Limerick and Galway are going to the Untied States. They appear to have chosen this route as being the cheapest, the rate of passage to this port being from 40s. to 50s., while to ports in the United States it has ranged from 65s. to 80s.
In the ship "Spermaceti," from Plymouth, there were some very respectable farmers with good means, who intend settling in the Newcastle and Home districts. A few families, numbering 35 persons, received partial assistance from their parish to the extent of about 4£ each family. They were without means on landing here, and were assisted by this department to proceed to their friends in Darlington.
The passengers per "Sarah Milledge," from Galway, are farmers and labourers, and a few masons. The latter were immediately employed here at 6s. per day. Upwards of 70 of the passengers by this vessel are going to Boston to their friends. Several families with capital are going to Upper Canada to settle. On inspecting the vessel I found that she had more persons on board than she could legally carry. I have accordingly placed the necessary information in the hands of the Crown officer for prosecution, a separate report of which I shall forward so soon as the proceedings are closed.
Employment has been very plenty so far, and labourers are receiving 3s. to 3s. 6d. per day. The number of free passages granted to emigrants on board the several vessels included in this return are as follows: –113 adults, 95 children under 12 years, and 30 under 3 years.
The rate of passage charged by the steamers between this port and Montreal this season, is 2s. 6d. for adults, children half price, and luggage free.
The rates from Montreal to Kingston by the route of the St. Lawrence, in the mail steamers from Lachine through, in from 26 to 30 hours, 15s. each adult, children 7s. 6d., one cwt. of luggage allowed each passenger free; over that quantity 2s. per cwt. By Bytown[Ottawa] and the Rideau Canal through in three and a half days, the same price as by the St. Lawrence.
Week ending 23rd may, 1846: The emigrants arrived during the week ending this date have landed in good health.
Return of Emigration Vessels on Board of which Contagious Disease was found at the Quarantine Station in 1846
|No.||Name of Vessel||Port||Disease||Sailed||Arrived|
|1||Barque Borneo||Limerick||Fever||Apr 4||May 11|
|2||Barque Dromchair?||Sligo||Small-pox and dysentery||Apr 6||May 11|
|3||Barque Highland Mary||Liverpool||Measles||Apr 8||May 12|
|4||Barque Fittock||Limerick||Measles||Apr 8||May 14|
|5||Barque Fergus||Hull||Fever||Apr 9||May 25|
|6||Barque Ayrshire||Newry||Small pox||Apr 15||May 23|
|7||Ship Admiral||Waterford||Fever||Apr 17||May 27|
|8||Barque Sir H. Pottinger||Belfast||Measles||Apr 15||May 28|
|9||Barque Marquis Normandy[sic]||Sligo||Fever||Apr 20||May 29|
|10||Ship Thetis?||Limerick||Fever and dysentery||Apr 18||May 31|
|11||Barque Margaret Pollock||Liverpool||Fever and Measles||Apr 26||June 1|
|12||Ship Marion||Cork||Fever||Apr 16||June 6|
|13||Barque Rockshire||Liverpool||Measles||Apr 25||June 8|
|14||Barque Caithnessshire||Belfast||Fever and dysentery||Apr 23||June 14|
|15||Barque Marquis Wellesley||Sligo||Fever||May 8||June 18|
|16||Brig Horatio||Sligo||Fever||Apr 27||June 20|
|17||Barque Kleutheria||Tralee||Fever||Apr 14||June 23|
|18||Brig Hannah||Killalee||Fever and Measles||May 5||June 23|
|19||Ship Elisabeth||Liverpool||Measles||May 26||July 8|
|20||Ship Sarah||Limerick||Fever||May 26||July 8|
|21||Ship Virginia||Liverpool||Small-pox||June 2||July 12|
|22||Ship Belinda||Belfast||Small-pox and Measles||June 3||July 14|
|23||Ship Mertoun||Belfast||Fever||May 28||July 21|
|24||Barque Minna||Sligo||Fever||May 8||July 24|
|25||Ship John Boulton||Liverpool||Fever||June 2||July 25|
|26||Barque Elisabeth and Sarah||Killala||Fever and dysentery||May 26||Aug 5|
|27||Ship British Empire||Tralee||Fever||June 17||Aug 6|
|28||Brig Coquette||Hamburg||Dysentery||June 15||Aug 9|
|29||Barque James Moran||Liverpool||Measles||June 13||Aug 20|
|30||Barque St. Lawrence||Cork||Small-pox||July 4||Aug 22|
|31||Ship Rockshire||Liverpool||Dysentery||Sept 10||Oct 19|
Nominal Return of Emigrants who Died at the Quarantine hospital in 1846
|1||Edward Hays||72||Fever||Ship Jane Black||May 11||May 17|
|2||Nancy M. Norton||36||"||Bark Borneo||May 11||May 21|
|3||John Brenton||40||Paralysis||Schooner Mary of Milford||May 20||May 22||Landed in a dying state|
|4||Jane Johnston||55||Fever||Bark Industry||May 29||May 29||Ditto|
|5||Seba?||3||"||Bark Margaret Pollok||June 1||June 2||Ditto|
|6||M.J. Hunter||16||"||Ditto||June 1||June 3|
|7||Catherine McGuire||20||"||Bark Princess Alice||May 28||June 8|
|8||Pat Milcaryhny||1½||"||Bark Admiral||May 27||June 10|
|9||Edward Flannery||1||"||Ship Stadacomer||June 16||June 17||Landed in a dying state|
|10||John Davis||10||"||Bark Caithnesshire||June 14||June 21|
|11||Martha Pugh||14 months||"||Ship Agamemnon||June 17||June 21|
|12||Mary Beatice||20||"||Bark Caithnesshire||June 14||June 24|
|13||Jane Couglin||4||"||Ditto||June 16||June 22|
|14||Jane Mooney||65||"||Sir H. Pottinger||June 19||June 26|
|15||Thomas Warrington||6||"||Ship Agamemnon||June 16||July 1|
|16||Peter McCormick||30||"||Barque Jessie||June 23||July 1|
|17||Eliza Lane||14||"||Andromache||June 24||July 2|
|18||George Faden||3||"||Margaret Wellesley||June 29||July 2|
|19||Susan Medley||4||Measles||Ship Elisabeth||July 2||July 3||Landed in a dying state|
|20||Thomas Martin||1½||"||Ditto||July 2||July 3||Ditto|
|21||Rose Martin||40||Fever||Ditto||July 2||July 4|
|22||Sarah Savage||24||"||Ship Miltiadea?||June 23||July 5|
|23||Mary Cadahy||6||Measles||Ship Sarah||July 8||July 9|
|24||Catherine McWiggin||1||Small-pox||Ship Virginia||July 13||July 13||Died three hours after landing|
|25||Margaret Larkin||1||"||Ditto||July 14||July 15|
|26||Elisabeth M Kinley||4||"||Ship Belinda||July 14||July 17|
|27||Alice Lynch||4||Fever||Ship Virginia||July 13||July 17|
|28||Bridget Coleman||Infant||"||Ditto||July 1||July 15|
|29||Isabel Parke||2||"||Ship Sea King||July 11||July 12|
|30||Karl Blous?||1||"||Brig Perseverance||July 11||July 13|
|31||William Connor||8 months||Debility||Ship Belinda||July 14||July 22|
|32||John M. Cargon||79||Fever||Nurer Tender?||July 14||July 21|
|33||Belinda Hunter||Infant||Debility||Ship Belvidere||July 14||July 20|
|34||James Campbell||6||Small-pox||Ditto||July 14||July 27|
|35||William Campbell||4||"||Ditto||July 19||July 29|
|36||Alexander Hunter||3||"||Ditto||July 19||July 28|
|37||Barbara Close||15||Inflamed lungs||Barque Queen||July 23||July 30|
|38||Jane Beattie||15||Fever||Barque Caithnesshire||July 14||July 28|
|39||Catherine Kelly||3||Small-pox||Ship Virginia||July 14||July 30|
|40||James O'Hara||6||Fever||Barque Marna||July 27||Aug 4|
|41||William Napman||25||"||Ship John Boulton||July 27||Aug 6||Seaman|
|42||Michael Shea||40||"||Ship British Empire||Aug 6||Aug 8|
|43||John Herety||Infant||Debility||Barque Elisabeth and Sarah||Aug 6||Aug 12|
|44||Donald Gillis||23||Fever||Ship Brilliant||Aug 10||Aug 15|
|45||Michael Hopkins||20||"||Elisabeth and Sarah||Aug 6||Aug 15|
|46||Catherine Brushman||60||"||British Empire||Aug 6||Aug 14|
|47||Richard Flynn||20||"||Marquis of Normanby[sic]||May 29||Aug 17|
|48||James Nangle||19||"||Ditto||June 23||Aug 17|
|49||Robert McNab||3||Fever||Sarah and Elisabeth||Aug 7||Aug 17|
|50||Ann Crane||2||"||Ditto||Aug 11||Aug 16|
|51||Ellen Rowan||24||"||Ditto||Aug 13||Aug 18|
|52||Mary Manahan||1||"||Ditto||Aug 20||Aug 20|
|53||James Ekart||9||Dysentery||Schooner Coquette||Aug 12||Aug 21||German settler|
|54||Bridget Dixon||1||Fever||Barque Elizabeth and Sarah||Aug 10||Aug 16|
|55||Margaret Marily||2 months||Debility||Barque Elizabeth and Sarah||Aug 19||Aug 21||Infant born in hospital|
|56||Peter O'Donell||60||Fever||British Empire||Aug 10||Aug 30|
|57||Benjamine Sulivan||61||"||Barque St. Lawrence||Aug 23||Aug 30|
|58||John Halloran||21||"||Schooner Undine||June 11||Sept 1|
|59||Margaret Haveran||40||"||St. Lawrence||Aug 26||Sept 5|
|60||John O'Donnell||6||"||Ship British Empire||Aug 10||Sept 8|
|61||Thomas Siffert||40||"||Schooner Coquette||Aug 10||Sept 9|
|62||Mary Scammon||1||Debility||Schooner Coquette||Aug 24||Sept 20|
|63||David Harris||16||Fever||Elisabeth and Sarah||Aug 12||Sept 23|
|64||Alice Dulan||10||Small-pox||Barque St. Lawrence||Aug 23||Sept 24|
|65||Ellen Bury||6 months||Debility||British Empire||Aug 6||Aug 25|
|66||John Joyce||22||Phthisis||Barque Superior||Oct 12||Oct 29|
|67||Ann Burke||20||Fever||Barque Elisabeth and Sarah||Aug 6||Aug 9|
The character of the emigration to the province for the year 1846, is very similar to that of the two previous seasons. The proportion which the Irish emigration bears to the whole has considerably increased, and as in former years this class presents, in its appearance at least, the greatest deficiency of means. Mr. Hawke, in his report, which will be seen at Paper No. 10 of the Appendix, writes, "I am not aware that the number of indigent settlers this season has been much greater in proportion than usual, but there certainly was a large number of the Irish emigrants in a state of destitution as to clothes and bedding far exceeding anything I ever before witnessed."
So far as I have been able to judge there have been but few instances of wealthy emigrants from any part of the united Kingdom. A good many persons, both from England and Ireland, have possessed capital, varying from 100£ to 500£, sufficient for their advantageous settlement in the country, and a fair proportion of the remainder have been furnished with sufficient to keep them from immediate want. Of the emigrants from Wales, several families possessed funds amounting to from 300£ to 400£, and many of the German families from Hamburg also brought out considerable sums of money with them. These parties, however, have all gone to the western states. The great bulk of the Irish and a proportion of the English emigrants of the season have been exceedingly poor, indeed, dependent on immediate employment for their subsistence.
The rates of transport on the several inland routes for the emigrants, forwarded by the department during the past season, have been scarcely more favourable than last year. But on some of the routes increased facilities of conveyance have been afforded. The class of vessels employed has been materially improved, and the time required to perform the passage very considerably reduced. This has been more particularly the case on the route between Montreal and Kingston. In former years the passage vessels for all emigrants proceeding to the western section of the province, were required to be conveyed upwards via Bytown and the Rideau Canal; a passage which required from four to six days. During the past season, owing to the completion of the Beauharnois and St. Lawrence Canals, the shorter and more direct route has been opened. Large class steamers have been enabled to perform the distance regularly in from 28 to 30 hours, and without any increase in the charge for passage. At the same time a considerable saving is effected in the provisions required, and the comfort and convenience, more particularly of females and families, are greatly increased.
The rates at which Mr. Hawke was enabled to effect contracts with the steamboat proprietors on Lake Ontario for transport west of Kingston, were about 25 per cent cheaper than last year. The rates in this section of the province were much the same as last year.
The following were the rates paid on the main route from Quebec to Hamilton, for indigent emigrants forwarded by the department, viz:
|Contract with the Department||To the Public|
|From Quebec to Montreal||2||0||2||6|
|" Montreal to Beauharnois||3||4||5||0|
|" " to Lancaster||5||10||8||9|
|" " to Cornwall||6||8||10||0|
|" " to Williamsburg||7||6||11||3|
|" " to Matilda||8||4||12||6|
|" " to Prescott||8||4||12||6|
|" " to Brockville||8||4||12||6|
|" " to Kingston||10||0||15||0|
|" " to Bytown (Ottawa)||7||6||10||0|
|" " to On the line of the Rideau Canal or to Kingston||10||0||12||5|
|On Lake Ontario:--|
|From Kingston to Coburg or Port Hope||4||0||7||6|
|" " to Bond Head to Darlington||5||0||8||9|
|" " to Windsor Bay or Toronto||6||3||10||0|
|" Toronto to Port Cadet||1||3||2||0|
|" " to Oakville||2||0||2||6|
|" " to Wellington Square or Hamilton||2||6||3||9|
|" " to Niagara or Queenstown||2||6||5||0|
The actual cost to the Department of an adult passage, with an allowance of 1 cwt. of luggage, from Quebec to Hamilton, a distance of 571 miles, is 20s. 9d., = 16s. 4½d. sterling. The time required is 72 to 80 hours, a less time than was formerly required to go from Montreal to Kingston, by the Rideau canal route.
The same person paying his own passage would be subjected to a charge of 30s. or 24s. sterling.
Number of Persons who received Assistance to enable them to Emigrate during the Season 1846.
Date of Arrival
|Poor Law Commissioners||Parish Funds||Landlords and Private Funds|
|Jane Black||Limerick||12 May||-||-||51|
|Ann Moore||Limerick||" "||-||-||10|
|Bryan Abbe||Limerick||" "||-||-||148|
|Lady Bagot||New Ross||7 June||-||-||53|
|Ellen Forristel||Limerick||8 June||-||-||36|
|Lady Gordon||Dublin||13 June||-||-||5|
|Mary Lyall||Dublin||" "||-||-||9|
|Dumbrody||New Ross||23 June||-||-||17|
|Lord Collingwood||London||19 Aug||-||3||-|
|John Francis||Cork||30 Aug||-||-||10|
|Marquis Abercorn||Londonderry||2 Oct||-||-||3|
Distribution of the Emigrants who arrived in the Province of Canada during the year 1846, as near as can be ascertained.
|Number of Emigrants from the United Kingdom, via the River St. Lawrence, over one year||31,837|
|Number from Germany||896|
|Number arrived in Western Canada, via the United States||2,864|
|Estimated number remaining in the City and District of Quebec||200|
|Proceeded to the Eastern Townships, via Port St. Francis||209|
|Remaining in Montreal, and settled in District||1,500||1,909|
|Estimated number settled in the Ottawa, Dalhousie, and Bathurst District, including Bytown, and along the route of the Ridean[sic] Canal||1,200|
|At Kingston, Picton, and Belville, and settled in the Johnston, Midland, and Victoria Districts||1,528|
|At Coburg, Port Hope, and settled in the New Castle and Colborne Districts||1,868|
|At Whitby, Windsor, and Darlington||1,142|
|At Toronto, and settled in the Home and Simcoe Districts||14,881|
|At Hamilton, and settled in the Gore and Wellington Districts||3,594|
|At St. Catherine, and settled in the Niagara District||843|
|At Port Stanley, and by land to London, and in the Talbot and Western Districts||1,674||26,730|
Total number settled in Canada
|Estimated number gone to the United States from Upper Canada||1,989|
|Ditto, from Montreal via Lake Champlain||4,989|
Total supposed gone to the United States
Mr. M.H. Perley, Immigration Agent in New Brunswick presented information on the cost of agricultural produce, stock, etc.
4s. 2d. each
|Beans||"||not cultivated for sale|
|Good cart horse||about||12||10||0|
|Serviceable riding horse||"||20||0||0|
|Yoke of oxen||"||18||0||0|
|Sheep per score||"||9||0||0|
|Good milch cow||"||5||0||0|
|A cart of the description used by farmers||about||7||10||0|
|A waggon, ditto||"||10||0||0|
|A plough, ditto||"||2||10||0|
|Sledge for winter||"||3||10||0|
Emigration was up in 1846 with an increase of 4.5 percent from England, 48 percent from Ireland and a decrease of 24 percent from Scotland. The report reads: "Of the emigration from England nearly two-thirds was from the port of Liverpool, the number being 5701, of which number, 5,344 were natives of Ireland, 175 were English, 107 Scotch, 61 Welsh, and 14 Germans, making the total amount of the Irish emigration of this season, 26,186, or equal to nearly five-sixths of the whole."
"There has been an emigration this season direct from Germany, numbering 896 persons, the only arrivals direct from any foreign port, since the year 1836. A further party of Germans, numbering 144 persons, came from the port of Hull, to which they had proceeded, not being able to procure a vessel direct from Hamburg. These, added to some others from the port of Liverpool, will make the total number of foreigners who have landed at this port this season, 1084."
"The emigration of the past season is the largest since 1832, with the exception of 1842, when the number was 44, 374. Paper No. 4 furnishes a statement of the total aggregate emigration to this important province since the year 1829 inclusive, a period of 18 years. The total number of emigrants landed here has been 466,178."
"Paper No. 5 furnishes a return of the admissions, discharges, and deaths at the Quarantine Station, and at the Emigrant Hospital in this city. The number of admissions at these two establishments, in the course of the season of 1846, has been 1325, viz., 454 men, 492 women, and 379 children. The deaths have been 105, viz., 31 men, 30 women, and 44 children. This return, I regret to say, shows a very great increase, both in admissions and deaths, over any former year. There has been also, in the course of this year, a very great increase in the mortality among the emigrants during their passage. According to the reports made to this office, the deaths at sea were 25 men, 43 women, 85 children, between 1 and 14 years; and 51 infants; total, 204; and to these are to be added the number of deaths in Quarantine Hospital referred to, 68, making the total of the deaths previous to the landing at this port, 272, which is an increase of near 100 per cent over the year 1845." (The number of ships in violation of the passenger act were 45 from England; 109 from Ireland; 10 from Scotland; 7 from Hamburgh and Bremen.) The ships were: barque Eleuthera from Tralee; brig Hope from Westport; barque Triton from Penzance; barque Minna from Sligo; brig Arab from Bideford; Sarah Milledge from Galway.
"These vessels have been generally sufficiently found in provisions and stores, so far as the law requires. But the passengers, in many cases, were dependant almost entirely on the allowance the law afforded them, their own private stock being, after a few days at sea, wholly consumed; from which it appears that but little attention is paid to the private supply which the emigrants may provide, so that the ship have the requisite quantity of bread stuffs-which the law requires on board. Since the passing of the existing Act, the masters of passenger-vessels, being bound to issue a certain supply throughout the voyage, are indifferent as to the amount of private stock laid in; and when the desire to emigrate is strong, instances will occur in which the ship's issue alone is depended on. Under such circumstances, it is not surprising that there should have been a great deal of dissatisfaction caused this season, in consequence of the substitution of Indian corn meal for a portion of the povisions[sic] to be furnished by the ship. The emigrant, on engaging his passage, is informed that he will receive a pound of oatmeal, flour, or biscuit, each day during his passage, but on getting to sea, finds that one-half of this allowance is replaced by Indian corn meal, an article of food wholly new to him, and one which requires considerable care and attention in its preparation. He is naturally at once prejudiced against this article, and makes use of it in its unpalatable form, only when reduced to actual want. This description of food, although highly valuable under different circumstances, is not proper for issue throughout a long voyage, to people who have been wholly unaccustomed to its use, and who do not know how, indeed, to prepare it. Dr. Douglas has found that a great extent of sickness prevailed in the vessels in which the meal was used; and he confirms me in the impression, that it is desirable the permission accorded for the substitution of Indian corn meal, for the potatoes and oatmeal prescribed by the Act, should not be extended to another season."
"With regard to the proceedings which I considered it my duty to adopt in the very aggravated case of the barque Elizabeth and Sarah, from Killala, on board of which vessel so great a mortality and suffering occurred, I beg to refer to my reports to your Excellency of the 4th and 8th of August last. These reports will fully explain the circumstances under which I felt myself called upon to engage a steamer to proceed to the relief of the passengers on board this ship. My weekly report of the 22nd of August, which will be see at page 30 of the Appendix, and the Report of Dr. Douglas, which accompanies it, will fully detail the condition in which the passengers and vessel arrived at Grosse Isle...."
"I have this year to report the loss of three emigrant vessels proceeding to this port, fortunately, however, without serious loss of life. The brig Brilliant, from Cork, with 162 passengers, was wrecked on the coast of Newfoundland on the 12th of May. The passengers, with the exception of two, were saved, and succeeded in reaching St. John's, and were forwarded by the authorities to this port, with the exception of 30, who proceeded to Halifax on their route to the United States. The barque Hebe, from Liverpool, with 39 passengers, was wrecked on the Manicougan shoals on the 30th August. The passengers were all saved and brought to this port on the 12th September. The barque James and Mary Sinnott, from Tralee, was lost at sea in the severe gale of the 19th of September. Her passengers, 20 in number, were fortunately taken from the wreck by the ship Lord Glenelg, and all landed safely at Richabucto, on the 24th October; 11 of them reached this port on the 12th November."
"From Ireland the number assisted was 1013, being nearly equal to those of last year. These people were nearly all assisted by their landlords. Those from the Port of Limerick, 358, sent out by Colonel Wyndham and Mr. Spright, were generally well provided, and one party of 20 families, 51 persons, sent out by the latter gentleman, received, on landing here, a sum equal to two guineas each, amounting to 91£ 10s. Sterling.[sic] Those from the Ports of Dublin, Waterford, and Liverpool, 421 in number, landed here in extreme poverty, with the exception of a small party sent out by Earl Fitzwilliam in the Industry, who had been provided with a free passage and 30s. Each, to assist them on their voyage and on arrival here. The others, so far as I could learn, had received only a free passage and provisions. With reference more particularly to these last, I would refer to my weekly report of the 30th June. In the ship Londonderry there were 14 persons sent out by the Londonderry Union, who received the sum of 10s. Each, amounting to 8£ 15s. Sterling, which had been remitted to this office for their benefit after arrival. The Belinda, from Belfast, there were a number of poor families sent out by the Coleraine, Armagh, and Magherafelt Unions, who received the sum of 10s. Each from the master on landing here. Many of them, more particularly those from the Coleraine Union, were very helpless, consisting of sickly people and widows with families of helpless children. One or two of these families have been inmates of the hospital ever since their arrival here, and are now dependant on the charitable institutions in this city for their support."
"I am aware of several parties of emigrants having arrived at this port with the fixed intention of proceeding to the Western States. Of the German immigrants about 800 have gone to that quarter, and several parties of Welsh immigrants have also left the province with the same destination in view." It appears that cost was a factor as he goes on to say: "The largest portion of this number have proceeded direct from Montreal, by the route of St. John's and Lake Champlain, having emigrated with that intention, and have been induced to choose the route of the St. Lawrence as being much cheaper than the passage direct from Great Britain to any of the United States' ports. I may here remark that during the greater part of this last season, owing to the competition among the steam-boat proprietors on the St. Lawrence to Montreal and on Lake Champlain, an emigrant might be conveyed from this prot to Albany, the centre of the States of New York, for about six shillings sterling, or less than half the sum it would require to convey him to Kingston."
"Among the immigrants who have come into the province by the route of the United States were a party of Germans, 500 in number, who arrived at Hamilton in the month of November. They were represented as having but limited means on arrival, but they were proceeding to their friends and countrymen in the townships of Waterloo and Wilmot, [Waterloo County] who are competent to afford them the most efficient aid in their establishment. This party, with the German emigrants who have arrived by the route of the St. Lawrence, of whom 200 have settled in the same section of the province, will prove a valuable addition to our population. They are generally hardy and industrious, and from their extreme thriftiness, usually make successful settlers. The townships in the Wellington district, established by the Pennsylvanians, of German origin, are amongst the finest and most thriving settlements in the province, and they have served as a nucleus around which a very extensive and now populous district has grown up."
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© Marjorie P. Kohli, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1997-2007
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