Immigrants to Canada

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Female Emigrants Guide of 1854 (CIHM #41417)

(The following extracts from this publication, published in 1854, and written by Catharine Parr Traill, show a different side of the emigration process. Traill was the sister of Susanna Moodie and Samuel Strickland all of whom wrote books on their experiences in Canada.)

The
FEMALE EMIGRANT’S
GUIDE,
and
Hints on Canadian Housekeeping
By Mrs. C.P. Traill,
Authoress of the “Backwoods Of Canada,” “Forest Gleanings,” “The Canadian Crusoes,” &c., &c.

Preface

Among the many books that have been written for the instruction of the Canadian emigrant, there are none exclusively devoted for the use of the wives and daughters of the future settler, who for the most part, possess but a very vague idea of the particular duties which they are destined to undertake, and are often totally unprepared to meet the emergencies of their new mode of life.

As a general thing they are told that they must prepare their minds for some hardships and privations, and that they will have to exert themselves in a variety of ways to which they have hitherto been strangers; but the exact nature of that work, and how it is to be performed, is left untold. The consequence of this is that the females have everything to learn, with few opportunities of acquiring the requisite knowledge, which is often obtained under circumstances, and in situations the most discouraging; while their hearts are yet filled with natural yearnings after the land of their birth, (dear even to the poorest emigrant), with grief for the friends of their early days, and while every object in this new country is strange to them. Disheartened by repeated failures, unused to the expedients which the older inhabitants adopt in any case of difficulty, repining and disgust take the place of cheerful activity; troubles increase, and the power to overcome them decreases; domestic happiness disappears. The woman toils on heart-sick and pining for the home she left behind her. The husband reproaches his broken-hearted partner, and both blame the Colony for the failure of the individual.

Having myself suffered from the disadvantage of acquiring all my knowledge of Canadian housekeeping by personal experience, and having heard other females similarly situated lament the want of some simple useful book to give them an insight into the customs and occupations incidental to a Canadian settler’s life, I have taken upon me to endeavor to supply this want, and have with much labour collected such useful matter as I thought best calculated to afford the instruction required....

Introductory Remarks

Addressed To Husbands And Fathers

Before the master of the household fully decides upon taking so important a step as leaving his native land to become a settler in Canada, let him first commune with himself and ask the important question, Have I sufficient energy of character to enable me to conform to the changes that may await me in my new mode of life?–Let him next consider the capabilities of his partner; her health and general temper; for a sickly, peevish, discontented person will make but a poor settler’s wife in a country where cheerfulness of mind and activity of body are very essential to the prosperity of the household.

In Canada persevering energy and industry, with sobriety, will overcome all obstacles, and in time will place the very poorest family in a position of substantial comfort that no personal exertions alone could have procured for them elsewhere....

To Wives And Daughters

As soon as the fitness of emigrating to Canada has been fully decided upon, let the females of the family ask God’s blessing upon their undertaking; ever bearing in mind that “unless the Lord build the house, their labour is but lost that build it; unless the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain.”...

Let them remember that all practical knowledge is highly valuable in the land to which they are going. An acquaintance with the homely art of baking and making bread, which most servants and small housekeepers know how to practice, but which many young females that live in large towns and cities where the baker supplies the bread to the family, do not, is necessary to be acquired.

Cooking, curing meat, making butter and cheese, knitting, dress-making and tailoring–for most of the country-people here make the everyday clothing of their husbands, brothers or sons–are mood to be learned. By ripping to pieces any well-fitting old garment, a suitable pattern may be obtained of men’s clothes; and many a fair hand I have seen occupied in making garments of this description. For a quarter of a dollar, 1s. 3d., a tailor will cut out a pair of fine cloth trowsers; for a coat they charge more; but a good cloth is always better to have made up by a regular tailor: loose summer coats may be made at home, but may be bought cheap, ready-made, in the stores.

My female friends must bear in mind that it is one of the settler’s great objects to make as little outlay of money as possible. I allude to such as come out to Canada with very little available capital excepting what arises from the actual labour of their own hands, by which they must realize the means of paying for their land or the rental of a farm. Everything that is done in the house by the hands of the family, is so much saved or so much earned towards the payment for the land or building houses and barns, buying stock or carrying on the necessary improvements on the place: the sooner this great object is accomplished, the sooner will the settler and his family realize the comfort of feeling themselves independent....

As the young learn more quickly than the old, I would advise the daughters of the intending emigrant to acquire whatever useful arts they think likely to prove serviceable to them in their new country....

...The position of servants is much improved in one respect: their services are more valuable in a country where there is less competition among the working class. They can soon save enough to be independent. They have the cheering prospect always before them: It depends upon ourselves to better our own condition. In this country honest industry always commands respect: by it we can in time raise ourselves, and no one can keep us down....

It frequently happens that before the poor emigrant can settle upon land of his own, he is obliged to send the older children out to service. Perhaps he gets employment for himself and his wife, on some farm, where they can manage to keep the younger members of the family with them, if there is a small house or shanty convenient, on or near the farm on which they are hired. Sometimes a farmer can get a small farm on shares; but it is seldom a satisfactory mode of rental, and often ends in disagreement. As no man can serve two masters, neither can one farm support two, unless both parties are which rarely happens, quite disinterested and free from selfishness, each exacting no more than his due. It is seldom these partnerships turn out well....

Very little if any alteration has taken place nominally in the rate of servants’ wages during twenty-one years that I have lived in Canada, but a great increase in point of fact. Twenty years ago the servant-girl gave from 1s. 6d. To 2s. 6d. a yard for cotton prints, 10s. and 12s. a pair for very coarse shoes and boots; common white calico was 1s. and 1s. 3d. per yard, and other articles of clothing in proportion. Now she can buy good fast prints at 9d. and 10d., and some as low as 7½d. and 8d. per yard, calicoes and factory cottons from 4½d. to 9d. or 10d.; shoes, light American-made and very pretty, from 4s. 6d. to 7s. 6d., and those made to order 6s. 3d. to 7s. 6d.; boots 10s.; straw bonnets from 1s. 6d., coarse beehive plat, to such as are very tasteful and elegant in shape and quality, of the most delicate fancy chips and straws, proportionably cheap.

Thus while her wages remain the same, her outlay is decreased nearly one-half.

Ribbons and light fancy goods are still much higher in price than they are in the old country; so are stuffs and merinos. A very poor, thin Coburg cloth, or Orleans, fetches 1s. or 1s. 3d. per yard; mousselin de laines vary from 9d. to 1s. 6d. Probably the time will come when woollen goods will be manufactured in the colony; but the time for that is not yet at hand. The country flannel, home-spun, home-dyed and sometimes home-woven, is the sort of material worn in the house by the farmer’s family when at work. Nothing can be more suitable to the climate, and the labours of a Canadian settler’s wife or daughter, than gowns made of this country flannel: it is very durable, lasting often two or three seasons. When worn out as a decent working dress, it makes good sleigh-quilts for travelling, or can be cut up into rag-carpets, for a description of which see the article–Rag-Carpets: and for instructions in dyeing the wool or yarn for the flannel see Dyeing....The leather here is not nearly so durable as what is prepared at home, and consequently the shoes wear out much sooner, where the roads are rough and the work hard. No one need encumber themselves with clogs or pattens: the rough roads render them worse than useless, even dangerous, in the spring and fall, the only wet seasons: in winter the snow clogs them up, and you could not walk ten yards in them; and in summer there is no need of them: buy shoes instead; or for winter wear, a good pair of duffle boots, the sole overlaid with india-rubber or gutta pereha.

India-rubber boots and over-shoes can be bought from 4s. to 7s. 6d., if extra good, and lined with fur or fine flannel. Gentlemen’s boots, long or short, can be had also, but I do not know at what cost. Old women’s list shoes are good for the house in the snowy season, or good, strongly-made carpet shoes; but these last, with a little ingenuity, you can make for yourself.

Flannel I also recommend, as an advisable purchase: you must give from 1s. 9d. to 2s. 6d. for either white or red, and a still higher price for fine fabrics; which I know is much higher than they can be bought for at home. Good scarlet or blue flannel shirts are worn by all the emigrants that work on land or at trades in Canada; and even through the hottest summer weather the men still prefer them to cotton or linen.

A superior quality, twilied and of some delicate check, as pale blue, pink or green, are much the fashion among the gentlemen; this material however is more costly, and can hardly be bought under 3s. 6d. or 4s. a yard. A sort of overshirt made full and belted in at the waist, is frequently worn, made of homespun flannel, dyed brown or blue, and looks neat and comfortable; others of coarse brown linen, or canvas, called logging-shirts, are adopted by the choppers in their rough work of clearing up the fallows: these are not very unlike the short loose slop frocks of the peasants of the Eastern Counties of England, reaching no lower than the hips.

Merino or cottage stuffs are also good to bring out, also Scotch plaids and tweeds, strong checks for aprons, and fine white cotton stockings: those who wear silk, had better bring a supply for holiday wear: satin shoes are very high, but are only needed by the wealthy, or those ladies who expect to live in some of the larger towns or cities; but the farmer’s wife in Canada has little need of such luxuries–they are out of place and keeping.

On Dress

It is one of the blessings of this new country, that a young person’s respectability does by no means depend upon these points of style in dress; and many a pleasant little evening dance I have seen, where the young ladies wore merino frocks, cut high or low, and prunella shoes, and no disparaging remarks were made by any of the party. How much more sensible I thought these young people, than if they had made themselves slaves to the tyrant fashion. Nevertheless, in some of the large towns the young people do dress extravagantly, and even exceed those of Britain in their devotion to fine and costly apparel. The folly of this is apparent to every sensible person. When I hear women talk of nothing but dress, I cannot help thinking that it is because they have nothing more interesting to talk about; that their minds are uninformed, and bare, while their bodies are clothed with purple and fine linen. To dress neatly and with taste and even elegance is an accomplishment which I should desire to see practised by all females; but to make dress the one engrossing business and thought of life, is vain and foolish. One thing is certain, that a lady will be a lady, even in the plainest dress; a vulgar minded woman will never be a lady, in the most costly garments. Good sense is as much marked by the style of a person’s dress, as by their conversation. The servant-girl who expends half her wages on a costly shawl, or mantilla, and bonnet to wer over a fine shabby gown, or with coarse shoes and stockings, does not show as much sense as she who purchases at less cost a complete dress, each article suited to the other. They both attract attention, it is true; but in a different degree. The man of sense will notice the one for her wisdom; the other for her folly.–To plead fashion, is like following a multitude to do evil.

Canada A Field For Younger Working Females

...At this very minute I was assured by one of the best and most intelligent of our farmers, that the Township of Hamilton alone could give immediate employment to five hundred females;...What an inducement to young girls to emigrate is this! good wages, in a healthy and improving country; and what is better, in one where idleness and immorality are not the characteristics of the inhabitants: where steady industry is sure to be rewarded by marriage with young men who are able to place their wives in a very different station from that of servitude. How many young women who were formerly servants in my house, are now farmers’ wives, going to church or the market towns with their own sleighs or light waggons, and in point of dress, better clothed than myself.

Though Australia may offer the temptation of greater wages to female servants; yet the discomforts they are exposed to, must be a great drawback; and the immoral, disjoined state of domestic life, for decent, well-conducted young women, I should think, would more than counterbalance the nominal advantages from greater wages–The industrious, sober-minded labourer, with a numerous family of daughters, one would imagine would rather bring them to Canada where they can get immediate employment in respectable families; where they will get good wages and have every chance of bettering their condition and rising in the world, by becoming the wives of thriving farmers’ sons or industrious artizans; than form connexions with such characters as swarm the streets of Melbourne and Geelong, though thee may be able to fill their hands with gold, and clothe them with satin and velvet....

Those whose destination is intended to be in the Canadian towns will find little difference in regard to their personal comforts to what they were accustomed to enjoy at home....

Whatever be the determination of the intended emigrant, let him not exclude from his entire confidence the wife of his bosom, the natural sharer of his fortunes, be the path which leads to them rough or smooth. She ought not to be dragged as an unwilling sacrifice at the shrine of duty from home, kindred and friends, without her full consent: the difficulties as well as the apparent advantages ought to be laid candidly before her, and her advice and opinion asked; or how can she be expected to enter heart and soul into her husband’s hopes and plans; nor should such of the children as are capable of forming opinions on the subject be shut out from the family council; for let parents bear this fact in mind that much of their own future prosperity will depend upon the exertion of their children in the land to which they are going; and also let them consider that those children’s lot in life is involved in the important decision they are about to make....

Adornment Of Home

What effect should this love of her old home produce in the emigrant-wife? Surely an earnest endeavour to render her new dwelling equally charming; to adorn it within and without as much as circumstances will permit, not expending her husband’s means in the purchase of costly furniture which would be out of keeping in a log-house, but adopting such things as are suitable, neat and simple; studying comfort and convenience before show and finery. Many inconveniences must be expected at the outset; but the industrious female will endeavor to supply these wants by the exercise of a little ingenuity and taste. It is a great mistake to neglect those little household adornments which will give a look of cheerfulness to the very humblest home.

Nothing contributes so much to comfort and to the outward appearance of a Canadian house as the erection of the verandah or stoup, as the Dutch settlers call it, round the building. It affords a grateful shade from the summer heat, a shelter from the cold, and is a source of cleanliness to the interior. It gives a pretty, rural look to the poorest log-house, and as it can be put up with little expense, it should never be omitted. A few unbarked cedar posts, with a slab or shingled roof, costs very little. The floor should be of plank; but even with a hard dry earthen floor, swept every day with an Indian broom, it will still prove a great comfort. Those who build frame or stone or brick houses seldom neglect the addition of a verandah; to the common log-house it is equally desirable; nor need any one want for climbers with which to adorn the pillars.

Shade Plants

Among the wild plants of Canada there are many graceful climbers, which are to be found in almost every locality. Nature, as if to invite you to ornament your cottage-homes, has kindly provided so many varieties of shade-plants, that you may choose at will.

First, then, I will point out to your attention the wild grape, which is to be found luxuriating in every swamp, near the margin of lakes and rivers, wreathing the trees and tall bushes, with its abundant foliage and purple clusters. The Fox-grape and the Frost-grape are among the common wild varieties, and will produce a great quantity of fruit, which, though very acid, is far from being unpalatable when cooked with a sufficiency of sugar.

From the wild grape a fine jelly can be made by pressing the juice from the husks and seeds and boiling it with the proportion of sugar usual in making currant-jelly, i.e., one pound of sugar to one pint of juice. An excellent home-made wine can also be manufactured from these grapes. They are not ripe till the middle of October, and should not be gathered till the frost has softened them; from this circumstance, no doubt, the name of Frost-grape has been given to one species....The commonest climber for a log-house is the hop, which is, as you will dinf, an indispensable plant in a Canadian garden, it being the principal ingredient in making the yeast with which the household bread is raised....

Conclusion

And now, having touched upon almost every subject likely to prove useful to the emigrant’s wife or daughter, in her Canadian home, I will take my leave...

It is a pleasant thing to contemplate the growing prosperity of a new country. To see thriving farmers, with well-stored barns, and sunny pastures covered with flocks and herds; with fruitful gardens and orchards,...the result of industry and well-directed energy;...

The Irish emigrant can now listen to tales of famine and misery endured by his countrymen, while he looks round with complacency and contentment upon his own healthy, well-fed, well-clothed family, and thinks how different is his lot from that of his less fortunate brethren at home.

...you will find churches and ministers of every denomination; with ready access to Sunday-schools, for the better instruction of your children:...

Much has been effected by the government with respect to the establishing of schools in every township and in all the principal towns; and much improvement will yet be made; for we are what the Yankees would call a progressing people, and must go forward, till a satisfactory system of education has been established in the country, to meet this great want.

And now, farewell; and I trust you will find kind hearts and friends, and much prosperity, in the land of your adoption; never forgetting that you still belong to that land, which is the glory of all lands, and are subjects to a mild and merciful Sovereign, who is no less beloved in her Province of Canada, than she is by her loyal people of Britain.

APPENDIX

From Quebec to Montreal
180 miles, by steamers, every day, at five o’clock,
through in fourteen hours.

 

Steerage

Cabin

 

Stg.

Cy.

Stg.

Cy.

By the Royal Mail Packets,

3s 9d

3s 9d

12s

15s 0d

By the Tait’s Line

2s 0d

2s 6d

10s

12s 6d

From Montreal to Western Canada

Daily by the Royal Mail Line Steamer, at nine o’clock,
A.M., or by Rail Road to Lachine, at 12 o’clock

Distances

Deck fare

Cabin fare

Miles

Stg.

Cy.

Stg.

Cy.

From Montreal to...

 

 

 

 

Cornwall........78

5s

6s 3d

11s

13s 9d

Prescott........127

6s

7s 6d

14s

17s 6d

Brockville....139

Kingston......189

8s

10s 0d

20s

25s 0d

Cobourg......292

12s

15s 0d

28s

35s 0d

Port Hope....298

Bond Head...313

14s

17s 6d

34s

42s 6d

Darlington...317

Whitby.........337

16s

20s 0d

26s

45s 0d

Toronto........367

Hamilton.....410

Detroit.........595

24s

30s 0d

56s

$14

Chicago.......874

32s

40s 0d

80s

$20


Passengers by foregoing one tranship At Kingston to
the Lake Steamers, and at Toronto or Buffalo
Daily by the American Line Steamer, at 1 o’clock, p.m.

Miles

Deck fare

Cabin fare

From Montreal to

Stg.

Cy.

Stg.

Cy.

Ogdensburg...138

6s

7s 6d

14s

17s 0d

Cape Vincent...190

8s

10s 0d

20s

25s 0d

Sacket’s Harbor ...242

12s

15s 0d

24s

30s 0d

Oswego....286

14s

17s 6d

26s

32s 6d

Rochester...349

16s

20s 0d

30s

37s 6d

Lewiston....436

34s

42s 6d

Buffalo.....467

20s

25s 0d

38s

47s 6d

Cleveland...661

26s

32s 6d

-

-

Sandusky...721

28s

35s 6d

-

-

Toledo & Monroe..975

28s

35s 0d

-

-

Passengers by this line tranship at Ogdensburg to the lake Steamers for Oswego and Lewiston.
The passengers for both Lines embark at the Canal Basin, Montreal.
Steerage Passage from Quebec to Hamilton...23s 9d
Steerage Passage from Buffalo.......................28s 9d

From Hamilton to the Western States
By the Great Western Rail-road
The new short route to the West
Trains leave Hamilton daily for Detroit, connecting at that City with the Michigan Central Rail-Road for Chicago.

Distance

Emigrant Train

First-Class Train

 

Miles

Stg.

Cy.

Stg.

Cy.

To Dundas

6

0s 6d

0s 7½ d

1s 0d

1s 3d

Flamboro

9

 

 

Paris

20

2s 0d

2s 6d

3s 8d

4s 6d

Woodstock

43

3s 0d

3s 9d

5s 0d

6s 3d

Ingersoll

47

3s 6d

4s 4d

7s 0d

8s 9d

London

76

4s 9d

6s 0d

9s 0d

11s 3d

Eckford

96

6s 0d

7s 6d

14s 0d

17s 6d

Chatham

140

7s 0d

8s 9d

Windsor

186

8s 0d

10s 0d

20s 0d

25s 0d

Detroit, Michigan

Chicago, Illinois

465

16s 0d

20s 0d

44s 0d

55s 0d

Steamers leave Chicago daily for Milwaukie [sic] and all other Ports on Lake Michigan.

Emigrants on arriving at Chicago, if proceeding further, will, on application to Mr. H.J. Spalding, Agent of the Michigan Central Railroad Company, receive correct advice and direction as to route.

Passengers for the Western parts of the United States of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Indiana, must take the route via Buffalo.


Ottawa River and Rideau Canal
From Montreal to Bytown and places on the Rideau Canal, by Steam every evening
By Robertson, Jones & Co.,’s Line

From Montreal

Distance

Deck Passengers

 

Miles

Stg.

Cy.

Carillon

54

2s

2s 6d

Grenville

66

3s

3s 9d

L’Orignal

73

3s

3s 9d

Bytown

129

4s

5s 0d

Kemptville

157

{Rideau Canal}



6s





7s 6d

Merrickville

175

Smith’s Falls

190

Oliver’s Ferry

199

Isthmus

216

Jones’ Falls

226

Kingston

258

Passengers proceeding to Perth, Lanark, or any of the adjoining Settlements, should land at Oliver’s Ferry, seven miles from Perth.

Route to the Eastern Parts of the United States

Emigrants, proceeding to any of the following States of the American Union, viz.:–Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, and Pennsylvania

By the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad Company,–
Mr. W.A. Merry, Secy.
Office opposite to the Steamboat Landing, Montreal

 

Emigrant Train

 

From Montreal to

Stg.

Cy.

Burlington

8s 0d

10s 0d

Whitehall

12s 0d

15s 0d

Troy

18s 0d

22s 6d

New York

19s 0d

23s 9d

Boston

26s 0d

32s 6d


Trains of the above Company leave Montreal daily.

From Toronto Steamers leave daily for Port Credit, 15 miles; Oakville, 25 miles; Wellington Square, 37 miles; Hamilton, 43; also Port Dalhousie on the entrance of the Welland Canal, Niagara, Queenston and Lewiston–passage, 3s. 9d.

Steamers leave Kingston daily for the Bay of Quinte and the River Trent, calling at Picton, Adolphustown, Belleville, and other landing-places in the Bay.

To New Brunswick.

The best and most expeditious route is by the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, from Montreal to Portland–thence by Steamer, which leaves for St. John’s N.B. every Monday and Wednesday evening, at eight o’clock.

Route

Stg.

Cy.

From Quebec to Montreal, by Steamer

3s

3s 9d

Montreal to Portland, by Railroad

24s

30s 0d

Portland to St. John’s, by Steamer

16s

20s 0d

 

43s

53s 9d

Throughout these Passages, Children under twelve years of age are charged half-price, and those under three years are free.

Passengers by steamers from Quebec to Hamilton–Luggage free; if by Railroads, 100 lbs. Is allowed to each passenger, all over that quantity will be charged.

The Gold Sovereign is at present worth 21s. 4d. cy.; the English Shilling, 1s. 3d.; and the English Crown-piece, 6s. 1d.

Through Tickets can be obtained on application to this Office.
A.C. Buchanan, Chief Agent
Emigration Department,
Quebec, June, 1854.

Note.–It should be observed that the above information applies more particularly to the present year.–There are some parts of it, however, which will be found useful to intending emigrants and their friends here.

Any further information or new arrangements will appear in future numbers or editions.

Government Emigration Department

Parties desirous of bringing out their friends from Europe, are hereby notified, that the Chief Agent for Emigration has received the sanction of the Provincial Government to a plan for facilitating the same, which will obviate all risk of loss or misapplication of the money.

Upon payment of any sum of money to the Chief Agent, a Certificate will be issued, (see annexed form,) at the rate of Five Dollars to the Pound Sterling.

This Certificate will be available for transmission, and will secure the parties holding the same passage by vessels from any port in the United Kingdom, or from Bremen and Hamburg, bound for Quebec.

Parties in Western Canada will be furnished with the necessary Certificate, on application to A.B. Hawke, Esq., the Chief Emigration Agent at Toronto, or the undersigned at Quebec. They may also at the same time arrange with this Department for their inland transport to any point on the line of steamboat or railroad travel nearest to their place of final destination. Application, if by letter, to be postpaid.

A.C. Buchanan, Chief Agent
Emigration Department,
Quebec, May, 1854.


[Note: In the table below “To” is used for Toronto, U.C. and “Not” is used for Nottingham, England.]

Table Showing The Comparative Meteorology At Toronto, U.C., And High-Field

House, Nottingham, England, For The Year 1854.

Month

Mean Temp.

Highest Temp.

Lowest Temp.

Mean Daily Highest

Mean Daily Lowest

Monthly Range of Temp.

Mean Daily Range

To

Not

To

Not

To

Not

To

Not

To

Not

To

Not

To

Not

Jan

23.6

37.0

46.4

55.2

-5.4

-4.0

29.3

42.7

13.5

30.3

51.8

59.2

15.8

12.4

Feb

21.1

39.2

42.8

56.0

-10.8

24.8

29.6

46.7

9.1

31.4

53.6

31.2

20.5

15.3

Mar

30.7

43.7

55.1

64.3

7.4

23.4

36.3

53.9

22.9

34.6

47.7

40.9

13.4

19.3

Apr

41.0

46.4

65.1

74.8

20.2

26.4

47.8

59.2

30.7

35.1

44.9

48.4

17.1

24.1

May

52.2

50.0

71.4

73.0

25.2

31.4

61.8

62.8

37.9

37.7

46.2

41.6

23.9

25.1

Jun

64.1

55.2

92.5

79.8

35.2

41.0

74.5

65.2

49.8

46.8

57.3

38.8

24.7

18.4

Jul

72.5

59.4

98.0

86.0

42.5

39.0

84.8

69.4

58.5

50.9

55.5

47.0

26.3

18.5

Aug

68.0

59.4

99.2

81.5

45.6

40.8

80.7

70.2

55.3

49.9

53.6

40.7

25.5

20.3

Sep

61.0

56.9

93.6

82.1

35.8

33.5

72.6

69.9

49.1

45.1

57.8

48.6

23.5

24.8

Oct

49.5

47.6

75.4

66.4

26.4

24.6

59.0

57.2

41.3

38.5

49.0

41.8

17.6

18.7

Nov

36.8

39.7

55.4

57.2

13.8

18.7

42.1

46.3

28.1

32.8

41.6

38.5

13.9

13.5

Dec

21.9

40.7

44.8

56.6

-7.0

24.0

29.5

46.4

14.4

34.2

51.8

32.6

15.1

12.2

Year

45.2

47.9

99.2

86.0

-10.8

-4.0

 

 

 

 

110.0

90.0

19.8

18.6

Comparative Meteorology

The depth of rain that fell during the year at Nottingham was 17.3 inches, which however, is nearly 12 inches less than the usual amount; that at Toronto was 23.5 inches being 8 inches less than the average: the fall at Nottingham was distributed over 174 days, and at Toronto over 114. The depth of snow that fell at Toronto was 49.5 inches, distributed over 52 days, thus leaving at Toronto 199 perfectly fair days, on which neither rain nor snow fell. The whole period, however, occupied by fall of rain or snow is remarkably small, not amounting quite to 26 days. The climate of Upper Canada, as compared with that of Great Britain, presents a much greater range of temperature in the course of the year, the winters being much colder and the summers much hotter, and combines a remarkable regularity from year to year with excessive variability on particular days. These extremes are however more than compensated for by the general fineness of the weather, dryness of the atmosphere, and the almost total absence of mist or fog and continuous rain.

 

Lat. N.

Mean of Year

Winter

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Hottest Month

Coldest Month

Diff. between hottest & coldest mo.

Diff. between Summer & Winter

Isle of Wight

50.45

50.4

39.0

48.7

63.0

51.0

65.0

37.0

28.0

24.0

Greenwich

51.29

49.0

37.7

48.4

60.3

49.4

62.7

35.4

27.2

22.6

Boston

52.48

49.1

37.7

48.2

62.0

48.5

63.0

36.0

27.0

24.4

Dublin

53.21

50.1

40.7

48.5

61.1

50.1

61.5

39.3

22.2

20.4

Isle of Man

54.12

49.8

41.7

47.4

59.0

51.3

60.3

40.5

19.8

17.3

Carlisle

54.54

47.0

37.2

45.5

57.4

47.8

58.5

36.2

22.3

20.1

Edinburgh

55.58

47.1

38.4

45.0

57.2

47.9

58.7

37.4

21.3

18.7

Aberdeen

57.90

49.2

39.0

48.2

59.5

50.0

60.5

37.8

22.6

20.5

Toronto, C.W.

43.39

44.3

24.9

40.9

65.0

46.7

66.6

23.3

43.3

40.1

Niagara, C.W.

43.15

51.7

30.5

47.2

72.2

57.0

74.6

25.2

49.4

41.7

The Authoress has to express her acknowledgments for the two foregoing tables to Professor Cherriman, M.A., St. John’s College, Cambridge, now of the Observatory, Toronto.


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